Searchable Dictionary : SQLiteDatabase « Database « Android

Searchable Dictionary

 * Copyright (C) 2010 The Android Open Source Project
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.


import android.content.ContentValues;
import android.content.Context;
import android.content.res.Resources;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteDatabase;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteOpenHelper;
import android.database.sqlite.SQLiteQueryBuilder;
import android.provider.BaseColumns;
import android.text.TextUtils;
import android.util.Log;

import java.util.HashMap;

 * Contains logic to return specific words from the dictionary, and
 * load the dictionary table when it needs to be created.
public class DictionaryDatabase {
    private static final String TAG = "DictionaryDatabase";

    //The columns we'll include in the dictionary table
    public static final String KEY_WORD = SearchManager.SUGGEST_COLUMN_TEXT_1;
    public static final String KEY_DEFINITION = SearchManager.SUGGEST_COLUMN_TEXT_2;

    private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "dictionary";
    private static final String FTS_VIRTUAL_TABLE = "FTSdictionary";
    private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 2;

    private final DictionaryOpenHelper mDatabaseOpenHelper;
    private static final HashMap<String,String> mColumnMap = buildColumnMap();

     * Constructor
     * @param context The Context within which to work, used to create the DB
    public DictionaryDatabase(Context context) {
        mDatabaseOpenHelper = new DictionaryOpenHelper(context);

     * Builds a map for all columns that may be requested, which will be given to the 
     * SQLiteQueryBuilder. This is a good way to define aliases for column names, but must include 
     * all columns, even if the value is the key. This allows the ContentProvider to request
     * columns w/o the need to know real column names and create the alias itself.
    private static HashMap<String,String> buildColumnMap() {
        HashMap<String,String> map = new HashMap<String,String>();
        map.put(KEY_WORD, KEY_WORD);
        map.put(BaseColumns._ID, "rowid AS " +
        map.put(SearchManager.SUGGEST_COLUMN_INTENT_DATA_ID, "rowid AS " +
        map.put(SearchManager.SUGGEST_COLUMN_SHORTCUT_ID, "rowid AS " +
        return map;

     * Returns a Cursor positioned at the word specified by rowId
     * @param rowId id of word to retrieve
     * @param columns The columns to include, if null then all are included
     * @return Cursor positioned to matching word, or null if not found.
    public Cursor getWord(String rowId, String[] columns) {
        String selection = "rowid = ?";
        String[] selectionArgs = new String[] {rowId};

        return query(selection, selectionArgs, columns);

        /* This builds a query that looks like:
         *     SELECT <columns> FROM <table> WHERE rowid = <rowId>

     * Returns a Cursor over all words that match the given query
     * @param query The string to search for
     * @param columns The columns to include, if null then all are included
     * @return Cursor over all words that match, or null if none found.
    public Cursor getWordMatches(String query, String[] columns) {
        String selection = KEY_WORD + " MATCH ?";
        String[] selectionArgs = new String[] {query+"*"};

        return query(selection, selectionArgs, columns);

        /* This builds a query that looks like:
         *     SELECT <columns> FROM <table> WHERE <KEY_WORD> MATCH 'query*'
         * which is an FTS3 search for the query text (plus a wildcard) inside the word column.
         * - "rowid" is the unique id for all rows but we need this value for the "_id" column in
         *    order for the Adapters to work, so the columns need to make "_id" an alias for "rowid"
         * - "rowid" also needs to be used by the SUGGEST_COLUMN_INTENT_DATA alias in order
         *   for suggestions to carry the proper intent data.
         *   These aliases are defined in the DictionaryProvider when queries are made.
         * - This can be revised to also search the definition text with FTS3 by changing
         *   the selection clause to use FTS_VIRTUAL_TABLE instead of KEY_WORD (to search across
         *   the entire table, but sorting the relevance could be difficult.

     * Performs a database query.
     * @param selection The selection clause
     * @param selectionArgs Selection arguments for "?" components in the selection
     * @param columns The columns to return
     * @return A Cursor over all rows matching the query
    private Cursor query(String selection, String[] selectionArgs, String[] columns) {
        /* The SQLiteBuilder provides a map for all possible columns requested to
         * actual columns in the database, creating a simple column alias mechanism
         * by which the ContentProvider does not need to know the real column names
        SQLiteQueryBuilder builder = new SQLiteQueryBuilder();

        Cursor cursor = builder.query(mDatabaseOpenHelper.getReadableDatabase(),
                columns, selection, selectionArgs, null, null, null);

        if (cursor == null) {
            return null;
        } else if (!cursor.moveToFirst()) {
            return null;
        return cursor;

     * This creates/opens the database.
    private static class DictionaryOpenHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {

        private final Context mHelperContext;
        private SQLiteDatabase mDatabase;

        /* Note that FTS3 does not support column constraints and thus, you cannot
         * declare a primary key. However, "rowid" is automatically used as a unique
         * identifier, so when making requests, we will use "_id" as an alias for "rowid"
        private static final String FTS_TABLE_CREATE =
                    " USING fts3 (" +
                    KEY_WORD + ", " +
                    KEY_DEFINITION + ");";

        DictionaryOpenHelper(Context context) {
            super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
            mHelperContext = context;

        public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
            mDatabase = db;

         * Starts a thread to load the database table with words
        private void loadDictionary() {
            new Thread(new Runnable() {
                public void run() {
                    try {
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        throw new RuntimeException(e);

        private void loadWords() throws IOException {
            Log.d(TAG, "Loading words...");
            final Resources resources = mHelperContext.getResources();
            InputStream inputStream = resources.openRawResource(R.raw.definitions);
            BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream));

            try {
                String line;
                while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
                    String[] strings = TextUtils.split(line, "-");
                    if (strings.length < 2) continue;
                    long id = addWord(strings[0].trim(), strings[1].trim());
                    if (id < 0) {
                        Log.e(TAG, "unable to add word: " + strings[0].trim());
            } finally {
            Log.d(TAG, "DONE loading words.");

         * Add a word to the dictionary.
         * @return rowId or -1 if failed
        public long addWord(String word, String definition) {
            ContentValues initialValues = new ContentValues();
            initialValues.put(KEY_WORD, word);
            initialValues.put(KEY_DEFINITION, definition);

            return mDatabase.insert(FTS_VIRTUAL_TABLE, null, initialValues);

        public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {
            Log.w(TAG, "Upgrading database from version " + oldVersion + " to "
                    + newVersion + ", which will destroy all old data");


 * Copyright (C) 2010 The Android Open Source Project
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.


import android.content.ContentProvider;
import android.content.ContentResolver;
import android.content.ContentValues;
import android.content.UriMatcher;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.provider.BaseColumns;

 * Provides access to the dictionary database.
public class DictionaryProvider extends ContentProvider {
    String TAG = "DictionaryProvider";

    public static String AUTHORITY = "";
    public static final Uri CONTENT_URI = Uri.parse("content://" + AUTHORITY + "/dictionary");

    // MIME types used for searching words or looking up a single definition
    public static final String WORDS_MIME_TYPE = ContentResolver.CURSOR_DIR_BASE_TYPE +
    public static final String DEFINITION_MIME_TYPE = ContentResolver.CURSOR_ITEM_BASE_TYPE +

    private DictionaryDatabase mDictionary;

    // UriMatcher stuff
    private static final int SEARCH_WORDS = 0;
    private static final int GET_WORD = 1;
    private static final int SEARCH_SUGGEST = 2;
    private static final int REFRESH_SHORTCUT = 3;
    private static final UriMatcher sURIMatcher = buildUriMatcher();

     * Builds up a UriMatcher for search suggestion and shortcut refresh queries.
    private static UriMatcher buildUriMatcher() {
        UriMatcher matcher =  new UriMatcher(UriMatcher.NO_MATCH);
        // to get definitions...
        matcher.addURI(AUTHORITY, "dictionary", SEARCH_WORDS);
        matcher.addURI(AUTHORITY, "dictionary/#", GET_WORD);
        // to get suggestions...
        matcher.addURI(AUTHORITY, SearchManager.SUGGEST_URI_PATH_QUERY + "/*", SEARCH_SUGGEST);

        /* The following are unused in this implementation, but if we include
         * {@link SearchManager#SUGGEST_COLUMN_SHORTCUT_ID} as a column in our suggestions table, we
         * could expect to receive refresh queries when a shortcutted suggestion is displayed in
         * Quick Search Box, in which case, the following Uris would be provided and we
         * would return a cursor with a single item representing the refreshed suggestion data.
        return matcher;

    public boolean onCreate() {
        mDictionary = new DictionaryDatabase(getContext());
        return true;

     * Handles all the dictionary searches and suggestion queries from the Search Manager.
     * When requesting a specific word, the uri alone is required.
     * When searching all of the dictionary for matches, the selectionArgs argument must carry
     * the search query as the first element.
     * All other arguments are ignored.
    public Cursor query(Uri uri, String[] projection, String selection, String[] selectionArgs,
                        String sortOrder) {

        // Use the UriMatcher to see what kind of query we have and format the db query accordingly
        switch (sURIMatcher.match(uri)) {
            case SEARCH_SUGGEST:
                if (selectionArgs == null) {
                  throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                      "selectionArgs must be provided for the Uri: " + uri);
                return getSuggestions(selectionArgs[0]);
            case SEARCH_WORDS:
                if (selectionArgs == null) {
                  throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                      "selectionArgs must be provided for the Uri: " + uri);
                return search(selectionArgs[0]);
            case GET_WORD:
                return getWord(uri);
            case REFRESH_SHORTCUT:
                return refreshShortcut(uri);
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown Uri: " + uri);

    private Cursor getSuggestions(String query) {
      query = query.toLowerCase();
      String[] columns = new String[] {
       /* SearchManager.SUGGEST_COLUMN_SHORTCUT_ID,
                        (only if you want to refresh shortcuts) */

      return mDictionary.getWordMatches(query, columns);

    private Cursor search(String query) {
      query = query.toLowerCase();
      String[] columns = new String[] {

      return mDictionary.getWordMatches(query, columns);

    private Cursor getWord(Uri uri) {
      String rowId = uri.getLastPathSegment();
      String[] columns = new String[] {

      return mDictionary.getWord(rowId, columns);

    private Cursor refreshShortcut(Uri uri) {
      /* This won't be called with the current implementation, but if we include
       * {@link SearchManager#SUGGEST_COLUMN_SHORTCUT_ID} as a column in our suggestions table, we
       * could expect to receive refresh queries when a shortcutted suggestion is displayed in
       * Quick Search Box. In which case, this method will query the table for the specific
       * word, using the given item Uri and provide all the columns originally provided with the
       * suggestion query.
      String rowId = uri.getLastPathSegment();
      String[] columns = new String[] {

      return mDictionary.getWord(rowId, columns);

     * This method is required in order to query the supported types.
     * It's also useful in our own query() method to determine the type of Uri received.
    public String getType(Uri uri) {
        switch (sURIMatcher.match(uri)) {
            case SEARCH_WORDS:
                return WORDS_MIME_TYPE;
            case GET_WORD:
                return DEFINITION_MIME_TYPE;
            case SEARCH_SUGGEST:
                return SearchManager.SUGGEST_MIME_TYPE;
            case REFRESH_SHORTCUT:
                return SearchManager.SHORTCUT_MIME_TYPE;
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URL " + uri);

    // Other required implementations...

    public Uri insert(Uri uri, ContentValues values) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();

    public int delete(Uri uri, String selection, String[] selectionArgs) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();

    public int update(Uri uri, ContentValues values, String selection, String[] selectionArgs) {
        throw new UnsupportedOperationException();


 * Copyright (C) 2010 The Android Open Source Project
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.


import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuInflater;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.ListView;
import android.widget.SearchView;
import android.widget.SimpleCursorAdapter;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemClickListener;

 * The main activity for the dictionary.
 * Displays search results triggered by the search dialog and handles
 * actions from search suggestions.
public class SearchableDictionary extends Activity {

    private TextView mTextView;
    private ListView mListView;

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        mTextView = (TextView) findViewById(;
        mListView = (ListView) findViewById(;


    protected void onNewIntent(Intent intent) {
        // Because this activity has set launchMode="singleTop", the system calls this method
        // to deliver the intent if this actvity is currently the foreground activity when
        // invoked again (when the user executes a search from this activity, we don't create
        // a new instance of this activity, so the system delivers the search intent here)

    private void handleIntent(Intent intent) {
        if (Intent.ACTION_VIEW.equals(intent.getAction())) {
            // handles a click on a search suggestion; launches activity to show word
            Intent wordIntent = new Intent(this, WordActivity.class);
        } else if (Intent.ACTION_SEARCH.equals(intent.getAction())) {
            // handles a search query
            String query = intent.getStringExtra(SearchManager.QUERY);

     * Searches the dictionary and displays results for the given query.
     * @param query The search query
    private void showResults(String query) {

        Cursor cursor = managedQuery(DictionaryProvider.CONTENT_URI, null, null,
                                new String[] {query}, null);

        if (cursor == null) {
            // There are no results
            mTextView.setText(getString(R.string.no_results, new Object[] {query}));
        } else {
            // Display the number of results
            int count = cursor.getCount();
            String countString = getResources().getQuantityString(R.plurals.search_results,
                                    count, new Object[] {count, query});

            // Specify the columns we want to display in the result
            String[] from = new String[] { DictionaryDatabase.KEY_WORD,
                                           DictionaryDatabase.KEY_DEFINITION };

            // Specify the corresponding layout elements where we want the columns to go
            int[] to = new int[] {,

            // Create a simple cursor adapter for the definitions and apply them to the ListView
            SimpleCursorAdapter words = new SimpleCursorAdapter(this,
                                          R.layout.result, cursor, from, to);

            // Define the on-click listener for the list items
            mListView.setOnItemClickListener(new OnItemClickListener() {
                public void onItemClick(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int position, long id) {
                    // Build the Intent used to open WordActivity with a specific word Uri
                    Intent wordIntent = new Intent(getApplicationContext(), WordActivity.class);
                    Uri data = Uri.withAppendedPath(DictionaryProvider.CONTENT_URI,

    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater();
        inflater.inflate(, menu);

        SearchManager searchManager = (SearchManager) getSystemService(Context.SEARCH_SERVICE);
        SearchView searchView = (SearchView) menu.findItem(;

        return true;

    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        switch (item.getItemId()) {
                return true;
                return false;

 * Copyright (C) 2010 The Android Open Source Project
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.


import android.content.Context;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.database.Cursor;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.Menu;
import android.view.MenuInflater;
import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.widget.SearchView;
import android.widget.TextView;

 * Displays a word and its definition.
public class WordActivity extends Activity {

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        ActionBar actionBar = getActionBar();

        Uri uri = getIntent().getData();
        Cursor cursor = managedQuery(uri, null, null, null, null);

        if (cursor == null) {
        } else {

            TextView word = (TextView) findViewById(;
            TextView definition = (TextView) findViewById(;

            int wIndex = cursor.getColumnIndexOrThrow(DictionaryDatabase.KEY_WORD);
            int dIndex = cursor.getColumnIndexOrThrow(DictionaryDatabase.KEY_DEFINITION);


    public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) {
        MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater();
        inflater.inflate(, menu);

        SearchManager searchManager = (SearchManager) getSystemService(Context.SEARCH_SERVICE);
        SearchView searchView = (SearchView) menu.findItem(;
        return true;

    public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
        switch (item.getItemId()) {
                return true;
                Intent intent = new Intent(this, SearchableDictionary.class);
                return true;
                return false;

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.
<!-- Layout for SearchableActivity.
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
            android:layout_weight="1" />

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.
<!-- Layout for list items in the search results.
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.
<!-- Layout for WordActivity.
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=""
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />
            android:layout_height="wrap_content" />

** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.
<!-- Options Menu for SearchableActivity and WordActivity.
<menu xmlns:android="">
    <item android:id="@+id/search"
          android:actionViewClass="android.widget.SearchView" />

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abstinence - n. practice of refraining from indulging an appetite especially alcohol
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academy - n. a school for special training
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accurate - j. conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy
accusation - n. an assertion that someone is guilty of a fault or offence
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acid - j. biting, sarcastic, or scornful
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advocacy - n. active support of an idea or cause etc.; especially the act of pleading or arguing for something
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ally - n. an associate who provides cooperation or assistance
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appease - v. make peace with
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arbitrary - j. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice
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arrange - v. put into a proper or systematic order
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arrival - n. the act of arriving at a certain place
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arrogant - j. having or showing feelings of unwarranted importance out of overbearing pride
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authenticity - n. undisputed credibility
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autobiography - n. a biography of yourself
autonomous - j. existing as an independent entity
autonomy - n. immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence
avid - j. marked by active interest and enthusiasm
banal - j. repeated too often; over familiar through overuse
barring - n. the act of excluding someone by a negative vote or veto
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belle - n. a young woman who is the most charming and beautiful of several rivals
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bid - n. a formal proposal to buy at a specified price
biography - n. an account of the series of events making up a person's life
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brokerage - n. the business of a broker; charges a fee to arrange a contract between two parties
buffet - n. a meal set out on a buffet at which guests help themselves
bumper - n. a mechanical device consisting of bars at either end of a vehicle to absorb shock and prevent serious damage
bureau - n. an administrative unit of government
bureaucracy - n. non elected government officials
butt - v. to strike, thrust or shove against
cabinet - n. persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers
caliber - n. a degree or grade of excellence or worth
campaign - n. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end
canon - n. a rule or especially body of rules or principles generally established as valid and fundamental in a field or art or philosophy
cardinal - j. serving as an essential component
caricature - n. a representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect
casual - j. without or seeming to be without plan or method; offhand
catastrophe - n. an event resulting in great loss and misfortune
caucus - n. a closed political meeting
causal - j. involving or constituting a cause; causing
censure - n. harsh criticism or disapproval
census - n. a periodic count of the population
cereal - n. grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat; rice; rye; oats; maize; buckwheat; millet
ceremonial - j. marked by pomp or ceremony or formality
chaos - n. a state of extreme confusion and disorder
characteristic - n. a distinguishing quality
chronic - j. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
citadel - n. a stronghold into which people could go for shelter during a battle
cite - v. refer to for illustration or proof
clumsy - j. not elegant or graceful in expression
coalition - n. an organization of people (or countries) involved in a pact or treaty
coherent - j. marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts
coincidence - n. the temporal property of two things happening at the same time
collapse - v. break down, literally or metaphorically
colleague - n. an associate that one works with
collective - j. set up on the principle of collectivism or ownership and production by the workers involved usually under the supervision of a government
collector - n. a person who collects things
collision - n. an accident resulting from violent impact of a moving object
commemorate - v. mark by some ceremony or observation
commentary - n. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material
commission - n. a special group delegated to consider some matter
commitment - n. the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action
commodity - n. articles of commerce
commute - n. a regular journey of some distance to and from your place of work
comparable - j. able to be compared or worthy of comparison
comparison - n. the act of examining resemblances
compassionate - j. showing or having compassion
compensate - v. make payment to; compensate
competence - n. the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
competent - j. properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient
competitive - j. involving competition or competitiveness
competitor - n. the contestant you hope to defeat
complex - j. complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts
component - n. an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system
composer - n. someone who composes music as a profession
comprehensive - j. broad in scope
concede - v. admit (to a wrongdoing)
conceive - v. have the idea for
concession - n. a point conceded or yielded
confederate - j. united in a group or league
confidence - n. a state of confident hopefulness that events will be favorable
confident - j. having or marked by confidence or assurance
confront - v. oppose, as in hostility or a competition
conscience - n. a feeling of shame when you do something immoral
conscious - j. knowing and perceiving; having awareness of surroundings and sensations and thoughts
consecutive - j. one after the other
consensus - n. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole
conservatism - n. a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
conservative - j. avoiding excess
consistency - n. a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts
conspicuous - j. obvious to the eye or mind
conspiracy - n. a plot to carry out some harmful or illegal act (especially a political plot)
constituency - n. the body of voters who elect a representative for their area
consume - v. use up (resources or materials)
consumer - n. a person who uses goods or services
consumption - n. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth
contemplate - v. look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
contemporary - j. belonging to the present time
contender - n. the contestant you hope to defeat
contentious - j. inclined or showing an inclination to dispute or disagree, even to engage in law suits
contingent - j. possible but not certain to occur
continuous - j. continuing in time or space without interruption
contradiction - n. opposition between two conflicting forces or ideas
contradictory - j. unable for both to be true at the same time
contribution - n. a voluntary gift (as of money or service or ideas) made to some worthwhile cause
contributor - n. someone who contributes (or promises to contribute) a sum of money
convenience - n. the quality of being useful and convenient
conversion - n. the act of changing from one use or function or purpose to another
convertible - j. designed to be changed from one use or form to another
conviction - n. an unshakable belief in something without need for proof or evidence
corporate - j. of or belonging to a corporation
corps - n. a body of people associated together
corruption - n. destroying someone's (or some group's) honesty or loyalty; undermining moral integrity
cosmetic - j. serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose
cosmopolitan - j. of worldwide scope or applicability
counsel - n. something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
counterpart - n. a person or thing having the same function or characteristics as another
courageous - j. able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching
course - n. a connected series of events or actions or developments
courtesy - n. a courteous or respectful or considerate act
credible - j. appearing to merit belief or acceptance
critique - n. a serious examination and judgment of something
crusade - v. exert oneself continuously, vigorously, or obtrusively to gain an end or engage in a crusade for a certain cause or person; be an advocate for
crush - v. to compress with violence, out of natural shape or condition
curator - n. the custodian of a collection (as a museum or library)
curriculum - n. an integrated course of academic studies
cynical - j. believing the worst of human nature and motives; having a sneering disbelief in e.g. selflessness of others
cynicism - n. a cynical feeling of distrust
daring - n. the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger
debacle - n. a sudden and violent collapse
debut - v. appear for the first time in public
decay - n. the organic phenomenon of rotting
decency - n. the quality of conforming to standards of propriety and morality
decent - j. socially or conventionally correct; refined or virtuous
decisive - j. characterized by decision and firmness
decree - n. a legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
dedication - n. complete and wholehearted fidelity
default - n. loss due to not showing up
defendant - n. a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused
defensive - j. attempting to justify or defend in speech or writing
defiance - n. a hostile challenge
definite - j. known for certain
delicacy - n. something considered choice to eat
demise - v. transfer by a lease or by a will
demonstrate - v. establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment
denominator - n. the divisor of a fraction
deposition - n. (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer's office
depression - n. a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
depth - n. the attribute or quality of being deep, strong, or intense
derive - v. come from
descent - n. properties attributable to your ancestry
desert - n. arid land with little or no vegetation
designate - v. give an assignment to (a person) to a post, or assign a task to (a person)
despair - n. a state in which all hope is lost or absent
desperate - j. showing extreme urgency or intensity especially because of great need or desire
detect - v. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
deter - v. try to prevent; show opposition to
determination - n. the quality of being determined to do or achieve something; firmness of purpose
deterrent - j. tending to deter
diagnosis - n. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
dialogue - n. a discussion intended to produce an agreement
difference - n. the quality of being unlike or dissimilar
dignity - n. the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect
dilemma - n. state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options
diplomacy - n. subtly skillful handling of a situation
diplomat - n. a person who deals tactfully with others
diplomatic - j. using or marked by tact in dealing with sensitive matters or people
disagree - v. be of different opinions
disappear - v. become invisible or unnoticeable
discern - v. detect with the senses
discipline - n. a system of rules of conduct or method of practice
discomfort - n. the state of being tense and feeling pain
discourse - n. extended verbal expression in speech or writing
discover - v. see for the first time; make a discovery
discriminate - v. treat differently on the basis of sex or race
discussion - n. an exchange of views on some topic
disdain - n. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike
dishonest - j. deceptive or fraudulent; disposed to cheat or defraud or deceive
dismal - j. causing dejection
dismay - v. fill with apprehension or alarm; cause to be unpleasantly surprised
dismissal - n. the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart)
disparity - n. inequality or difference in some respect
disregard - n. willful lack of care and attention
dissent - n. a difference of opinion
distant - j. separated in space or coming from or going to a distance
distinction - n. a distinguishing difference
distress - n. extreme physical pain
distrust - v. regard as untrustworthy; regard with suspicion; have no faith or confidence in
diverse - j. many and different
diversion - n. an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates
diversity - n. noticeable heterogeneity
divert - v. turn aside; turn away from
document - n. writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)
doe - n. mature female of mammals of which the male is called 'buck'
domain - n. territory over which rule or control is exercised
dominance - n. the state that exists when one person or group has power over another
dominant - j. exercising influence or control
dominate - v. be in control
domination - n. social control by dominating
donate - v. give to a charity or good cause
donor - n. person who makes a gift of property
drastic - j. forceful and extreme and rigorous
drought - n. a shortage of rainfall
dubious - j. open to doubt or suspicion
dynamics - n. the branch of mechanics concerned with the forces that cause motions of bodies
earnest - j. characterized by a firm and humorless belief in the validity of your opinions
eccentric - n. a person with an unusual or odd personality
eclectic - j. selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas
editorial - n. an article giving opinions or perspectives
effect - n. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
effective - j. works well as a means or remedy
efficiency - n. skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort
efficient - j. able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively
elaborate - v. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing
element - n. any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
eligible - j. qualified for or allowed or worthy of being chosen
eliminate - v. terminate, end, or take out
embargo - n. a government order imposing a trade barrier
emblem - n. a visible symbol representing an abstract idea
embrace - n. the act of clasping another person in the arms (as in greeting or affection)
emerge - v. come out into view, as from concealment
emergence - n. the gradual beginning or coming forth
eminent - j. of imposing height; especially standing out above others
emphasis - n. intensity or forcefulness of expression
emphasize - v. to stress, single out as important
employee - n. a worker who is hired to perform a job
employer - n. a person or firm that employs workers
emulate - v. imitate the function of (another system), as by modifying the hardware or the software
enact - v. order by virtue of superior authority; decree
encourage - v. inspire with confidence; give hope or courage to
encyclopedia - n. a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics
endorse - v. be behind; approve of
enduring - j. patiently bearing continual wrongs or trouble
energetic - j. possessing or exerting or displaying energy
enhance - v. make better or more attractive
enormous - j. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
enthusiastic - j. having or showing great excitement and interest
entity - n. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)
epic - j. very imposing or impressive; surpassing the ordinary (especially in size or scale)
epidemic - n. a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time
episode - n. a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series
equilibrium - n. a stable situation in which forces cancel one another
equity - n. the difference between the market value of a property and the claims held against it
equivalent - j. being essentially equal to something
error - n. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
esquire - n. a title of respect for a member of the English gentry ranking just below a knight; placed after the name
essence - n. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work
evangelical - j. relating to or being a Christian church believing in personal conversion and the inerrancy of the Bible especially the 4 Gospels
evoke - v. call to mind
evolution - n. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
exceed - v. be greater in scope or size than some standard
excellent - j. very good; of the highest quality
excerpt - n. a passage selected from a larger work
excess - j. more than is needed, desired, or required
exclude - v. prevent from being included or considered or accepted
excursion - n. a journey taken for pleasure
exempt - v. grant relief or an exemption from a rule or requirement to
existence - n. everything that exists anywhere
exit - v. move out of or depart from
exotic - j. strikingly strange or unusual
expand - v. become larger in size or volume or quantity
expansion - n. the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope
expect - v. regard something as probable or likely
expectancy - n. something expected (as on the basis of a norm)
expense - n. money spent to perform work and usually reimbursed by an employer
expertise - n. skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge
explicit - j. precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication
explode - v. drive from the stage by noisy disapproval
exploit - v. use or manipulate to one's advantage
explosion - n. the act of exploding or bursting
explosive - n. a chemical substance that undergoes a rapid chemical change (with the production of gas) on being heated or struck
exposure - n. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain
expressive - j. characterized by expression
extension - n. an addition to the length of something
extensive - j. large in spatial extent or range or scope or quantity
exterior - n. the outer side or surface of something
external - j. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface
extradition - n. the surrender of an accused or convicted person by one state or country to another (usually under the provisions of a statute or treaty)
extraordinary - j. beyond what is ordinary or usual; highly unusual or exceptional or remarkable
extravagant - j. unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings
exuberant - j. joyously unrestrained
fabulous - j. extremely pleasing
facial - j. of or concerning the face
facility - n. something designed and created to serve a particular function and to afford a particular convenience or service
faction - n. a dissenting clique
faulty - j. characterized by errors; not agreeing with a model or not following established rules
feasible - j. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are
felony - n. a serious crime (such as murder or arson)
feminine - j. associated with women and not with men
fervor - n. the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
fetus - n. an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
feud - n. a bitter quarrel between two parties
feudal - j. of or relating to or characteristic of feudalism
fidelity - n. the quality of being faithful
finale - n. the concluding part of any performance
finite - j. bounded or limited in magnitude or spatial or temporal extent
fiscal - j. involving financial matters
flag - n. emblem usually consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design
flamboyant - j. marked by ostentation but often tasteless
fleet - n. a group of warships organized as a tactical unit
flexible - j. able to flex; able to bend easily
flop - n. a complete failure
flourish - n. a showy gesture
foil - n. anything that serves by contrast to call attention to another thing's good qualities
ford - v. cross a river where it's shallow
forecast - n. a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
foreign - j. relating to or originating in or characteristic of another place or part of the world
foresee - v. act in advance of; deal with ahead of time
formation - n. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit
formidable - j. extremely impressive in strength or excellence
formula - n. directions for making something
forte - n. an asset of special worth or utility
forth - a. forward in time or order or degree
foster - v. promote the growth of
fragile - j. easily broken or damaged or destroyed
frantic - j. excessively agitated; distraught with fear or other violent emotion
fray - v. wear away by rubbing
frequency - n. the number of occurrences within a given time period
fringe - n. a social group holding marginal or extreme views
frivolous - j. not serious in content or attitude or behavior
frontier - n. a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country
fundamental - j. being or involving basic facts or principles
further - v. promote the growth of
futile - j. producing no result or effect
galaxy - n. (astronomy) a collection of star systems; any of the billions of systems each having many stars and nebulae and dust
gamble - v. take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome
gauge - n. a measuring instrument for measuring and indicating a quantity such as the thickness of wire or the amount of rain etc.
generate - v. bring into existence
generic - j. applicable to an entire class or group
generosity - n. the trait of being willing to give your money or time
genesis - n. the first book of the Old Testament: tells of Creation; Adam and Eve; Cain and Abel
gesture - n. motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling
gigantic - j. so exceedingly large or extensive as to suggest a giant or mammoth
gist - n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
glimpse - n. a brief or incomplete view
glorious - j. having great beauty and splendor
grandeur - n. the quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand
grandiose - j. impressive because of unnecessary largeness or grandeur; used to show disapproval
grave - j. of great gravity or crucial import; requiring serious thought
gravity - n. a manner that is serious and solemn
grief - n. something that causes great unhappiness
grotesque - j. distorted and unnatural in shape or size; abnormal and hideous
grove - n. a small growth of trees without underbrush
guise - n. an artful or simulated semblance
hack - n. a mediocre and disdained writer
hale - j. exhibiting or restored to vigorous good health
handwriting - n. something written by hand
harbor - v. hold back a thought or feeling about
hazard - n. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune
heir - n. a person who is entitled by law or by the terms of a will to inherit the estate of another
heritage - n. practices that are handed down from the past by tradition
hilarious - j. marked by or causing boisterous merriment or convulsive laughter
hollow - j. not solid; having a space or gap or cavity
homage - n. respectful deference
hostility - n. violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked
humane - j. marked or motivated by concern with the alleviation of suffering
humanitarian - n. someone devoted to the promotion of human welfare and to social reforms
hush - v. become quiet or still; fall silent
hybrid - n. (genetics) an organism that is the offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock; especially offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties or breeds or species
hypocrisy - n. insincerity by virtue of pretending to have qualities or beliefs that you do not really have
hypothesis - n. a tentative insight into the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
hysteria - n. excessive or uncontrollable fear
icon - n. a conventional religious painting in oil on a small wooden panel; venerated in the Eastern Church
ideology - n. an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
illusion - n. an erroneous mental representation
imaginary - j. not based on fact; unreal
imitation - n. something copied or derived from an original
immense - j. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope
immigrant - n. a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there
imminent - j. close in time; about to occur
immoral - j. not adhering to ethical or moral principles
immune - j. (usually followed by 'to') not affected by a given influence
impending - j. close in time; about to occur
implausible - j. having a quality that provokes disbelief
implicit - j. implied though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something
imply - v. express or state indirectly
impose - v. compel to behave in a certain way
improper - j. not suitable or right or appropriate
impulse - n. a sudden desire
inadequate - j. not sufficient to meet a need
incentive - n. a positive motivational influence
incidence - n. the relative frequency of occurrence of something
incident - n. a public disturbance
incidentally - a. of a minor or subordinate nature
inclined - j. at an angle to the horizontal or vertical position
incompetence - n. lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications
inconsistent - j. displaying a lack of consistency
inconvenient - j. not suited to your comfort, purpose or needs
indefinitely - a. to an indefinite extent; for an indefinite time
indicator - n. a device for showing the operating condition of some system
indifferent - j. showing no care or concern in attitude or action
indigenous - j. originating where it is found
indulge - v. enjoy to excess
inefficient - j. not producing desired results; wasteful
inept - j. generally incompetent and ineffectual
inevitable - j. incapable of being avoided or prevented
inexpensive - j. relatively low in price or charging low prices
infamous - j. known widely and usually unfavorably
infinite - j. having no limits or boundaries in time or space or extent or magnitude
influence - n. a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc
influential - j. having or exercising influence or power
influx - n. the process of flowing in
ingenious - j. showing inventiveness and skill
inherent - j. in the nature of something though not readily apparent
injunction - n. (law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
inland - a. towards or into the interior of a region
insight - n. the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation
insistence - n. the state of demanding notice or attention
inspector - n. a high ranking police officer
instance - n. an occurrence of something
instant - n. a very short time
insufficient - j. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement
integral - j. essential to completeness; lacking nothing
integrity - n. moral soundness
intellectual - j. appealing to or using the intellect
intelligence - n. the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience
intensive - j. characterized by a high degree or intensity; often used as a combining form
intention - n. an act of intending; a volition that you intend to carry out
interact - v. act together or towards others or with others
interim - n. the time between one event, process, or period and another
intermediate - j. lying between two extremes in time or space or state
intervene - v. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force
intervention - n. the act of intervening (as to mediate a dispute, etc.)
intimacy - n. close or warm friendship
intricate - j. having many complexly arranged elements; elaborate
invasion - n. any entry into an area not previously occupied
inventive - j. (used of persons or artifacts) marked by independence and creativity in thought or action
investigator - n. a police officer who investigates crimes
investor - n. someone who commits capital in order to gain financial returns
invincible - j. incapable of being overcome or subdued
invoke - v. cite as an authority; resort to
involuntary - j. not subject to the control of the will
involve - v. engage as a participant
irony - n. incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
irrational - j. not consistent with or using reason
irrelevant - j. having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
irresistible - j. impossible to resist; overpowering
irresponsible - j. showing lack of care for consequences
judgment - n. the capacity to assess situations or circumstances shrewdly and to draw sound conclusions
judicial - j. belonging or appropriate to the office of a judge
juicy - j. lucrative
junction - n. something that joins or connects
jurisdiction - n. (law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law
juror - n. someone who serves (or waits to be called to serve) on a jury
justification - n. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary
juvenile - j. of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people
ken - n. range of what one can know or understand
knight - n. originally a person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry; today in Great Britain a person honored by the sovereign for personal merit
knit - n. needlework created by interlacing yarn in a series of connected loops using straight eyeless needles or by machine
lament - v. regret strongly
landmark - n. the position of a prominent or well-known object in a particular landscape
landscape - n. an expanse of scenery that can be seen in a single view
lapse - n. a break or intermission in the occurrence of something
laureate - n. someone honored for great achievements; figuratively someone crowned with a laurel wreath
lavish - j. very generous
lax - j. lacking in rigor or strictness
legacy - n. (law) a gift of personal property by will
legislative - j. relating to a legislature or composed of members of a legislature
legitimacy - n. lawfulness by virtue of being authorized or in accordance with law
legitimate - j. in accordance with recognized or accepted standards or principles
leisure - n. time available for ease and relaxation
lenient - j. not strict
levy - v. impose and collect
liable - j. held legally responsible
liberalism - n. a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution
lifelong - j. continuing through life
lifetime - n. the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)
likelihood - n. the probability of a specified outcome
liking - n. a feeling of pleasure and enjoyment
liquor - n. an alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented
literacy - n. the ability to read and write
literal - j. avoiding embellishment or exaggeration (used for emphasis)
literature - n. creative writing of recognized artistic value
logic - n. the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation
logical - j. capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner
lovable - j. having characteristics that attract love or affection
lucrative - j. producing a sizeable profit
ludicrous - j. broadly or extravagantly humorous; resembling farce
lying - n. the deliberate act of deviating from the truth
machinery - n. machines or machine systems collectively
magnet - n. (physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field
magnificent - j. characterized by grandeur
magnitude - n. the property of relative size or extent (whether large or small)
maintain - v. state or assert
maintenance - n. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order
makeup - n. the way in which someone or something is composed
mandate - n. an authorization to act given to a representative
mandatory - j. required by rule
maneuver - v. act in order to achieve a certain goal
manifesto - n. a public declaration of intentions (as issued by a political party or government)
marine - j. native to or inhabiting the sea
maritime - j. relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen
martial - j. suggesting war or military life
marvel - v. be amazed at
massacre - n. the savage and excessive killing of many people
massive - j. imposing in size or bulk or solidity
masterpiece - n. the most outstanding work of a creative artist or craftsman
material - j. concerned with worldly rather than spiritual interests
maternal - j. relating to or derived from one's mother
maze - n. complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost
mechanics - n. the technical aspects of doing something
medicine - n. something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
medieval - j. as if belonging to the Middle Ages; old-fashioned and unenlightened
mediocre - j. moderate to inferior in quality
meditation - n. continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
melodrama - n. an extravagant comedy in which action is more salient than characterization
memorable - j. worth remembering
menace - v. act in a threatening manner
mentality - n. a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations
mentor - v. serve as a teacher or trusted counselor
metal - n. any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids
metaphor - n. a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity
metric - j. based on the meter as a standard of measurement
metropolis - n. a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts
metropolitan - j. relating to or characteristic of a densely populated urban area
mileage - n. the ratio of the number of miles traveled to the number of gallons of gasoline burned; miles per gallon
militant - j. disposed to warfare or hard-line policies
militia - n. civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army
miniature - j. being on a very small scale
minimize - v. make small or insignificant
ministry - n. a government department under the direction of a minister
minority - n. being or relating to the smaller in number of two parts
minute - j. infinitely or immeasurably small
misdemeanor - n. a crime less serious than a felony
missile - n. a rocket carrying a warhead of conventional or nuclear explosives
momentum - n. an impelling force or strength
monarchy - n. an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
monastery - n. the residence of a religious community
monetary - j. relating to or involving money
monopoly - n. (economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
morale - n. the spirit of a group that makes the members want the group to succeed
morality - n. concern with the distinction between good and evil or right and wrong; right or good conduct
motto - n. a favorite saying of a sect or political group
mundane - j. concerned with the world or worldly matters; ordinary
municipal - j. relating to city government
muster - v. gather or bring together
myriad - n. a large indefinite number
myth - n. a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people
mythology - n. myths collectively; the body of stories associated with a culture or institution or person
narrative - n. a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program
narrator - n. someone who tells a story
naturally - a. according to nature; by natural means; without artificial help
naval - j. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy
necessary - j. absolutely essential
necessity - n. anything indispensable
network - n. an interconnected system of things or people
neutral - j. having no personal preference
nevertheless - a. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)
noisy - j. full of or characterized by loud and nonmusical sounds
nomination - n. the condition of having been proposed as a suitable candidate for appointment or election
nominee - n. a politician who is running for public office
norm - n. a standard or model or pattern regarded as typical
notorious - j. known widely and usually unfavorably
nude - n. without clothing (especially in the phrase 'in the nude')
obesity - n. more than average fatness
objective - j. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena
observatory - n. a building designed and equipped to observe astronomical phenomena
obsolete - j. no longer in use
obstruction - n. something that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
obtain - v. come into possession of
occasion - n. a vaguely specified social event
odor - n. the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form
ominous - j. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments
operate - v. handle and cause to function
operator - n. an agent that operates some apparatus or machine
opinion - n. a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
opponent - n. a contestant that you are matched against
opportunity - n. a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances
optimism - n. a general disposition to expect the best in all things
option - n. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
oral - j. of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth
ordeal - n. a severe or trying experience
ornate - j. marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details
orthodox - j. adhering to what is commonly accepted
outbreak - n. a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition)
outcry - n. a loud utterance; often in protest or opposition
outrage - n. a feeling of righteous anger
outrageous - j. grossly offensive to decency or morality; causing horror
outright - a. without reservation or concealment
overhaul - v. make repairs, renovations, revisions or adjustments to
oversee - v. watch and direct
overthrow - n. the termination of a ruler or institution (especially by force)
overweight - n. the property of excessive fatness
pact - n. a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
pageant - n. a rich and spectacular ceremony
panic - n. an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety
pantheon - n. all the gods of a religion
paradox - n. (logic) a statement that contradicts itself
parallel - j. being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting
parish - n. a local church community
parliament - n. a legislative assembly in certain countries
parody - v. make a spoof of or make fun of
participant - n. someone who takes part in an activity
participate - v. become a participant; be involved in
partisan - n. an ardent and enthusiastic supporter of some person or activity
partition - v. divide into parts, pieces, or sections
passive - j. lacking in energy or will
patriotism - n. love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
patron - n. someone who supports or champions something
pavilion - n. large and often sumptuous tent
peaceful - j. not disturbed by strife or turmoil or war
pedestrian - j. lacking wit or imagination
penalty - n. a punishment for a crime or offense
penchant - n. a strong liking
pennant - n. a long flag; often tapering
pension - n. a regular payment to a person that is intended to allow them to subsist without working
pentagon - n. a five-sided polygon
perceive - v. to become aware of or conscious of
perception - n. becoming aware of something via the senses
perennial - j. lasting an indefinitely long time; suggesting self-renewal
perform - v. carry out or perform an action
perjury - n. criminal offense of making false statements under oath
permanent - j. continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place
perpetual - j. continuing forever or indefinitely
persist - v. be persistent, refuse to stop
personal - j. concerning or affecting a particular person or his or her private life and personality
personality - n. the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual
personnel - n. persons collectively in the employ of a business
perspective - n. the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
persuade - v. cause somebody to adopt a certain position, belief, or course of action; twist somebody's arm
pervasive - j. spreading or spread throughout
petty - j. contemptibly narrow in outlook
phenomenal - j. exceedingly or unbelievably great
phenomenon - n. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning
philharmonic - j. composing or characteristic of an orchestral group
philosophy - n. any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation
physicist - n. a scientist trained in physics
physics - n. the science of matter and energy and their interactions
pinch - n. a squeeze with the fingers
pine - n. straight-grained white to yellowish tree
pioneer - v. open up and explore a new area
pivotal - j. being of crucial importance
plausible - j. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful
playful - j. full of fun and high spirits
playwright - n. someone who writes plays
plea - n. a humble request for help from someone in authority
plead - v. appeal or request earnestly
pleasant - j. affording pleasure; being in harmony with your taste or likings
plunge - v. fall abruptly
poetic - j. of or relating to poetry
poignant - j. arousing emotions; touching
poised - j. in full control of your faculties
portfolio - n. a set of pieces of creative work collected to be shown to potential customers or employers
positive - j. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.
possess - v. have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill
possession - n. the act of having and controlling property
potent - j. having a strong physiological or chemical effect
potential - j. existing in possibility
precedent - n. an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time
precise - j. sharply exact or accurate or delimited
precision - n. the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance
predecessor - n. one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)
predict - v. make a prediction about; tell in advance
prediction - n. a statement made about the future
prefer - v. like better; value more highly
preference - n. a strong liking
prejudice - n. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
premature - j. too soon or too hasty
premier - v. be performed for the first time
premise - v. set forth beforehand, often as an explanation
preparation - n. the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose
preposterous - j. incongruous; inviting ridicule
prescription - n. written instructions from a physician or dentist to a druggist concerning the form and dosage of a drug to be issued to a given patient
preservation - n. the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
pretentious - j. making claim to or creating an appearance of (often undeserved) importance or distinction
prevalent - j. most frequent or common
prevention - n. the act of preventing
primer - n. an introductory textbook
primitive - j. belonging to an early stage of technical development; characterized by simplicity and (often) crudeness
principal - n. the educator who has executive authority for a school
principle - n. a basic truth or law or assumption
principled - j. based on or manifesting objectively defined standards of rightness or morality
pristine - j. completely free from dirt or contamination
privilege - n. a special advantage or immunity or benefit not enjoyed by all
probation - n. (law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them; a defendant found guilty of a crime is released by the court without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court
probe - v. question or examine thoroughly and closely
procedure - n. a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work
proceed - v. move ahead; travel onward in time or space
productive - j. producing or capable of producing (especially abundantly)
profession - n. an occupation requiring special education (especially in the liberal arts or sciences)
professor - n. someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university
profile - n. an outline of something (especially a human face as seen from one side)
progressive - j. favoring or promoting progress
prohibition - n. the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
prolific - j. bearing in abundance especially offspring
promenade - n. a public area set aside as a pedestrian walk
prominence - n. relative importance
prominent - j. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention
promoter - n. someone who is an active supporter and advocate
prone - j. having a tendency (to); often used in combination
propaganda - n. information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
prophet - n. someone who speaks by divine inspiration; someone who is an interpreter of the will of God
protagonist - n. the principal character in a work of fiction
protection - n. the activity of protecting someone or something
protective - j. intended or adapted to afford protection of some kind
protestant - j. of or relating to Protestants or Protestantism
provincial - j. characteristic of the provinces or their people
provoke - v. evoke or provoke to appear or occur
proxy - n. a person authorized to act for another
prudence - n. knowing how to avoid embarrassment or distress
psychic - j. outside the sphere of physical science
pundit - n. someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field
quake - v. shake with fast, tremulous movements
qualify - v. make fit or prepared
quarterly - a. in three month intervals
radical - j. markedly new or introducing extreme change
rampant - j. unrestrained and violent
rapid - j. characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed
rave - v. praise enthusiastically
reaction - n. a response that reveals a person's feelings or attitude
readily - a. without much difficulty
realism - n. the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
recipient - n. a person who receives something
reckless - j. characterized by careless unconcern
recognize - v. detect with the senses
reconcile - v. come to terms
reconsider - v. consider again; give new consideration to; usually with a view to changing
recover - v. get or find back; recover the use of
recruit - v. cause to assemble or enlist in the military
redemption - n. (theology) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
refer - v. send or direct for treatment, information, or a decision
reflection - n. the image of something as reflected by a mirror (or other reflective material)
reform - v. make changes for improvement in order to remove abuse and injustices
refuge - n. a shelter from danger or hardship
refusal - n. the act of not accepting something that is offered
regime - n. the government or governing authority of a political unit
regional - j. related or limited to a particular region
reign - v. have sovereign power
relevant - j. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
reliant - j. depending on another for support
reluctance - n. a certain degree of unwillingness
reluctant - j. not eager
reminiscent - j. serving to bring to mind
renaissance - n. the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
render - v. give or supply
renowned - j. widely known and esteemed
repeal - n. cancel officially
reproduction - n. the act of making copies
requisite - n. anything indispensable
resemblance - n. similarity in appearance or external or superficial details
resent - v. feel bitter or indignant about
resist - v. withstand the force of something
resistance - n. the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with
resistant - j. impervious to being affected
resort - v. have recourse to
resource - n. a source of aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed
restore - v. bring back into original existence, use, function, or position
resurrection - n. (New Testament) the rising of Christ on the third day after the Crucifixion
retrospect - n. contemplation of things past
retrospective - j. concerned with or related to the past
revelation - n. communication of knowledge to man by a divine or supernatural agency
revive - v. be brought back to life, consciousness, or strength
rhetoric - n. using language effectively to please or persuade
ridiculous - j. incongruous; absurd; nonsensical
rigorous - j. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures
robust - j. sturdy and strong in form, constitution, or construction
rue - n. sadness associated with some wrong done or some disappointment
rural - j. living in or characteristic of farming or country life
rustic - j. characteristic of the fields or country
sacrifice - v. kill or destroy
savage - v. criticize harshly or violently
scholarly - j. characteristic of learning or studying
scope - n. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control
script - n. a written version of a play or other dramatic composition; used in preparing for a performance
secession - n. formal separation from an alliance or federation
secondary - j. not of major importance
secrecy - n. the trait of keeping things secret
secular - j. not concerned with or devoted to religion
seize - v. take hold of; grab
selective - j. characterized by very careful or fastidious choices
seminar - n. any meeting for an exchange of ideas
sensation - n. a perception associated with stimulation of a sensory organ
sensibility - n. refined sensitivity to pleasurable or painful impressions
sensitive - j. responsive to physical stimuli
sentence - n. the period of time a prisoner is imprisoned
sentinel - n. a person employed to keep watch for some anticipated event
sequel - n. a part added to a book or play that continues and extends it
sequence - n. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern
sergeant - n. any of several noncommissioned officer ranks in the Army or Air Force or Marines ranking above a corporal
servitude - n. state of subjection to an owner or master or forced labor imposed as punishment
severely - a. with sternness; in a severe manner
shallow - j. lacking depth of intellect or knowledge; concerned only with what is obvious
sheer - j. complete and without restriction or qualification
shrewd - j. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence
siege - n. the action of an armed force that surrounds a fortified place and isolates it while continuing to attack
significance - n. the quality of being important in effect or meaning
significant - j. important in effect or meaning
similar - j. having close to the same characteristics
sinister - j. stemming from evil characteristics or forces; wicked or dishonorable
skepticism - n. the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
slack - j. not tense or taut
slight - n. a deliberate discourteous act (usually as an expression of anger or disapproval)
sober - v. become more realistic
socialism - n. a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
socialist - j. advocating or following the socialist principles of state ownership
sociology - n. the study and classification of human societies
solar - j. relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun
soldier - n. an enlisted man or woman who serves in an army
somber - j. grave or even gloomy in character
sophisticated - j. having or appealing to those having worldly knowledge and refinement
souvenir - n. a reminder of past events
specialty - n. an asset of special worth or utility
species - n. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
spectator - n. a close observer; someone who looks at something (such as an exhibition of some kind)
specter - n. a ghostly appearing figure
spectrum - n. a broad range of related objects or ideas or activities
speculate - v. consider in an idle or casual way and with an element of doubt or without sufficient reason to reach a conclusion
spontaneous - j. said or done without having been planned or written in advance
static - j. showing little if any change
stature - n. high level of respect gained by impressive development or achievement
statute - n. an act passed by a legislative body
stealth - n. avoiding detection by moving carefully
stimulate - v. cause to be alert and energetic
stringent - j. demanding strict attention to rules and procedures
submission - n. something (manuscripts or architectural plans and models or estimates or works of art of all genres etc.) submitted for the judgment of others (as in a competition)
subsequent - j. following in time or order
subsidiary - j. functioning in a supporting capacity
substantive - j. having a firm basis in reality and being therefore important, meaningful, or considerable
subtle - j.  difficult to detect or grasp by the mind or analyze
successor - n. a person who follows next in order
summary - n. a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form
superb - j. of surpassing excellence
superficial - j. concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually
suppress - v. reduce the incidence or severity of or stop
surround - v. extend on all sides of simultaneously; encircle
suspense - n. excited anticipation of an approaching climax
suspension - n. an interruption in the intensity or amount of something
suspicious - j. openly distrustful and unwilling to confide
sympathetic - j. expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward
symphony - n. a large orchestra; can perform symphonies
systematic - j. characterized by order and planning
tactics - n. the branch of military science dealing with detailed maneuvers to achieve objectives set by strategy
tangible - j. perceptible by the senses especially the sense of touch
taxation - n. the imposition of taxes; the practice of the government in levying taxes on the subjects of a state
technique - n. skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity
technology - n. the practical application of science to commerce or industry
telescope - n. a magnifier of images of distant objects
temporary - j. not permanent; not lasting
tendency - n. a characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect
tense - j. taut or rigid; stretched tight
tentative - j. unsettled in mind or opinion
tenure - v. give life-time employment to
terminal - j. being or situated at an end
territorial - j. displaying territoriality; defending an area from intruders
testament - n. a profession of belief
theological - j. of or relating to or concerning the study of religion
theology - n. the rational and systematic study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truth
theoretical - j. concerned with theories rather than their practical applications
theorist - n. someone who theorizes (especially in science or art)
thesis - n. a formal paper advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a requirement for an advanced academic degree
titanic - j. of great force or power
tolerance - n. willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others
tolerant - j. showing respect for the rights or opinions or practices of others
tolerate - v. recognize and respect (rights and beliefs of others)
transcript - n. something that has been transcribed; a written record (usually typewritten) of dictated or recorded speech
transfer - v. move from one place to another
transition - v. make or undergo a transition (from one state or system to another)
translate - v. restate (words) from one language into another language
transmission - n. the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted
transparent - j. transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity
transplant - n. the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location
tremendous - j. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
tribune - n. a protector of the people
trinity - n. the union of the Father and Son and Holy Ghost in one Godhead
triple - v. increase threefold
trivial - j. of little substance or significance
truthful - j. expressing or given to expressing the truth
turmoil - n. a violent disturbance
typical - j. exhibiting the qualities or characteristics that identify a group or kind or category
ubiquitous - j. being present everywhere at once
ultimate - j. furthest or highest in degree or order; utmost or extreme
unanimous - j. acting together as a single undiversified whole
uncommon - j. not common or ordinarily encountered; unusually great in amount or remarkable in character or kind
unconscious - j. not conscious; lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception as if asleep or dead
undermine - v. destroy property or hinder normal operations
unique - j. the single one of its kind
unlimited - j. having no limits in range or scope
unprecedented - j. having no previous example; novel
urban - j. located in or characteristic of a city or city life
urgency - n. an urgent situation calling for prompt action
usage - n. the act of using
utility - n. the quality of being of practical use
vacuum - n. a region that is devoid of matter
valid - j. well grounded in logic or truth or having legal force
variation - n. an artifact that deviates from a norm or standard
vegetarian - n. eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products
vegetation - n. all the plant life in a particular region or period
venerable - j. impressive by reason of age
verify - v. confirm the truth of
version - n. something a little different from others of the same type
vertical - j. at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line
veto - n. the power or right to prohibit or reject a proposed or intended act (especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature)
vigorous - j. strong and active physically or mentally
violation - n. an act that disregards an agreement or a right
vista - n. the visual percept of a region
visual - j. relating to or using sight
vitality - n. an energetic style
vogue - n. the popular taste at a given time
volatile - j. liable to lead to sudden change or violence
vulnerable - j. capable of being wounded or hurt
warrant - v. stand behind and guarantee the quality, accuracy, or condition of
wherever - a. where in the world
wholly - a. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent ('whole' is often used informally for 'wholly')
woo - v. seek someone's favor
zeal - n. excessive fervor to do something or accomplish some end

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.

    <!-- The name of the application. -->
    <string name="app_name">Searchable Dictionary</string>

    <!-- The label for use as a searchable item -->
    <string name="search_label">Dictionary</string>

    <!-- The hint text that appears in the search box. -->
    <string name="search_hint">Search the dictionary</string>

    <!-- The menu entry that invokes search. -->
    <string name="menu_search">Search</string>

    <!-- The description that will show up in the search settings for this source.  -->
    <string name="settings_description">Definitions of words</string>

    <!-- General instructions in the main activity. -->
    <string name="search_instructions">Use the search box in the Action Bar to look up a word</string>

    <!-- Shown above search results when we receive a search request. -->
    <plurals name="search_results">
      <item quantity="one">%1$d result for \"%2$s\": </item>
      <item quantity="other">%1$d results for \"%2$s\": </item>

    <!-- Search failure message. -->
    <string name="no_results">No results found for \"%s\"</string>


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
** Copyright 2010, The Android Open Source Project
** Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
** you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
** You may obtain a copy of the License at
** Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
** distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
** See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
** limitations under the License.

<!-- The attributes below configure the Android search box appearance
     and the search suggestions settings.
     See the Developer Guide for more information
<searchable xmlns:android=""
        android:searchSuggestSelection=" ?"


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