Plays sounds streaming from a URL : MIDI « Development Class « Java

Plays sounds streaming from a URL

 * Copyright (c) 2004 David Flanagan.  All rights reserved.
 * This code is from the book Java Examples in a Nutshell, 3nd Edition.
 * It is provided AS-IS, WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY either expressed or implied.
 * You may study, use, and modify it for any non-commercial purpose,
 * including teaching and use in open-source projects.
 * You may distribute it non-commercially as long as you retain this notice.
 * For a commercial use license, or to purchase the book, 
 * please visit


import javax.sound.midi.InvalidMidiDataException;
import javax.sound.midi.MetaEventListener;
import javax.sound.midi.MetaMessage;
import javax.sound.midi.MidiSystem;
import javax.sound.midi.MidiUnavailableException;
import javax.sound.midi.Sequencer;
import javax.sound.midi.Synthesizer;
import javax.sound.sampled.AudioFormat;
import javax.sound.sampled.AudioInputStream;
import javax.sound.sampled.AudioSystem;
import javax.sound.sampled.DataLine;
import javax.sound.sampled.LineUnavailableException;
import javax.sound.sampled.SourceDataLine;
import javax.sound.sampled.UnsupportedAudioFileException;

 * This class plays sounds streaming from a URL: it does not have to preload the
 * entire sound into memory before playing it. It is a command-line application
 * with no gui. It includes code to convert ULAW and ALAW audio formats to PCM
 * so they can be played. Use the -m command-line option before MIDI files.
public class PlaySoundStream {
  // Create a URL from the command-line argument and pass it to the
  // right static method depending on the presence of the -m (MIDI) option.
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    if (args[0].equals("-m"))
      streamMidiSequence(new URL(args[1]));
      streamSampledAudio(new URL(args[0]));

    // Exit explicitly.
    // This is needed because the audio system starts background threads.

  /** Read sampled audio data from the specified URL and play it */
  public static void streamSampledAudio(URL url) throws IOException, UnsupportedAudioFileException,
      LineUnavailableException {
    AudioInputStream ain = null; // We read audio data from here
    SourceDataLine line = null; // And write it here.

    try {
      // Get an audio input stream from the URL
      ain = AudioSystem.getAudioInputStream(url);

      // Get information about the format of the stream
      AudioFormat format = ain.getFormat();
      DataLine.Info info = new DataLine.Info(SourceDataLine.class, format);

      // If the format is not supported directly (i.e. if it is not PCM
      // encoded, then try to transcode it to PCM.
      if (!AudioSystem.isLineSupported(info)) {
        // This is the PCM format we want to transcode to.
        // The parameters here are audio format details that you
        // shouldn't need to understand for casual use.
        AudioFormat pcm = new AudioFormat(format.getSampleRate(), 16, format.getChannels(), true,

        // Get a wrapper stream around the input stream that does the
        // transcoding for us.
        ain = AudioSystem.getAudioInputStream(pcm, ain);

        // Update the format and info variables for the transcoded data
        format = ain.getFormat();
        info = new DataLine.Info(SourceDataLine.class, format);

      // Open the line through which we'll play the streaming audio.
      line = (SourceDataLine) AudioSystem.getLine(info);;

      // Allocate a buffer for reading from the input stream and writing
      // to the line. Make it large enough to hold 4k audio frames.
      // Note that the SourceDataLine also has its own internal buffer.
      int framesize = format.getFrameSize();
      byte[] buffer = new byte[4 * 1024 * framesize]; // the buffer
      int numbytes = 0; // how many bytes

      // We haven't started the line yet.
      boolean started = false;

      for (;;) { // We'll exit the loop when we reach the end of stream
        // First, read some bytes from the input stream.
        int bytesread =, numbytes, buffer.length - numbytes);
        // If there were no more bytes to read, we're done.
        if (bytesread == -1)
        numbytes += bytesread;

        // Now that we've got some audio data, to write to the line,
        // start the line, so it will play that data as we write it.
        if (!started) {
          started = true;

        // We must write bytes to the line in an integer multiple of
        // the framesize. So figure out how many bytes we'll write.
        int bytestowrite = (numbytes / framesize) * framesize;

        // Now write the bytes. The line will buffer them and play
        // them. This call will block until all bytes are written.
        line.write(buffer, 0, bytestowrite);

        // If we didn't have an integer multiple of the frame size,
        // then copy the remaining bytes to the start of the buffer.
        int remaining = numbytes - bytestowrite;
        if (remaining > 0)
          System.arraycopy(buffer, bytestowrite, buffer, 0, remaining);
        numbytes = remaining;

      // Now block until all buffered sound finishes playing.
    } finally { // Always relinquish the resources we use
      if (line != null)
      if (ain != null)

  // A MIDI protocol constant that isn't defined by javax.sound.midi
  public static final int END_OF_TRACK = 47;

  /* MIDI or RMF data from the specified URL and play it */
  public static void streamMidiSequence(URL url) throws IOException, InvalidMidiDataException,
      MidiUnavailableException {
    Sequencer sequencer = null; // Converts a Sequence to MIDI events
    Synthesizer synthesizer = null; // Plays notes in response to MIDI events

    try {
      // Create, open, and connect a Sequencer and Synthesizer
      // They are closed in the finally block at the end of this method.
      sequencer = MidiSystem.getSequencer();;
      synthesizer = MidiSystem.getSynthesizer();;

      // Specify the InputStream to stream the sequence from

      // This is an arbitrary object used with wait and notify to
      // prevent the method from returning before the music finishes
      final Object lock = new Object();

      // Register a listener to make the method exit when the stream is
      // done. See Object.wait() and Object.notify()
      sequencer.addMetaEventListener(new MetaEventListener() {
        public void meta(MetaMessage e) {
          if (e.getType() == END_OF_TRACK) {
            synchronized (lock) {

      // Start playing the music

      // Now block until the listener above notifies us that we're done.
      synchronized (lock) {
        while (sequencer.isRunning()) {
          try {
          } catch (InterruptedException e) {
    } finally {
      // Always relinquish the sequencer, so others can use it.
      if (sequencer != null)
      if (synthesizer != null)


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