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Art of Illusion » ArtOfIllusion » animation » Actor.java
/* Copyright (C) 2003 by Peter Eastman

   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
   terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
   Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY 
   WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A 
   PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details. */

package artofillusion.animation;

import artofillusion.*;
import artofillusion.material.*;
import artofillusion.math.*;
import artofillusion.object.*;
import artofillusion.texture.*;
import artofillusion.ui.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.lang.reflect.*;
import java.util.*;

/** An Actor is an object with a set of predefined gestures.  Gestures can be blended in arbitrary
    combinations to form poses. */

public class Actor extends ObjectWrapper
{
  Gesture gesture[];
  String gestureName[];
  int gestureID[], nextPoseID;
  private ActorKeyframe currentPose;
  
  public Actor(Object3D obj)
  {
    theObject = obj;
    gesture = new Gesture [] {(Gesture) obj.getPoseKeyframe()};
    gestureName = new String [] {"Default Pose"};
    gestureID = new int [] {0};
    nextPoseID = 1;
    currentPose = new ActorKeyframe();
  }
  
  /** Add a new gesture to this actor. */
  
  public void addGesture(Gesture p, String name)
  {
    int num = gesture.length;
    Gesture newpose[] = new Gesture [num+1];
    String newname[] = new String [num+1];
    int newID[] = new int [num+1];
    System.arraycopy(gesture, 0, newpose, 0, num);
    System.arraycopy(gestureName, 0, newname, 0, num);
    System.arraycopy(gestureID, 0, newID, 0, num);
    newpose[num] = p;
    newname[num] = name;
    newID[num] = nextPoseID++;
    gesture = newpose;
    gestureName = newname;
    gestureID = newID;
  }

  /** Delete a gesture from this actor. */
  
  public void deleteGestureWithID(int id)
  {
    int which = getGestureIndex(id);
    if (which == -1)
      return;
    int num = gesture.length;
    Gesture newpose[] = new Gesture [num-1];
    String newname[] = new String [num-1];
    int newID[] = new int [num-1], j = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < num; i++)
      {
        if (i == which)
          continue;
        newpose[j] = gesture[i];
        newname[j] = gestureName[i];
        newID[j] = gestureID[i];
        j++;
      }
    gesture = newpose;
    gestureName = newname;
    gestureID = newID;
  }
  
  /** Get the number of gestures defined for this actor. */
  
  public int getNumGestures()
  {
    return gesture.length;
  }
  
  /** Get the i'th gesture defined for this actor. */
  
  public Gesture getGesture(int i)
  {
    return gesture[i];
  }
  
  /** Get the gesture with a particular ID, or null if there is no gesture with that ID. */
  
  public Gesture getGestureWithID(int id)
  {
    int index = getGestureIndex(id);
    return (index == -1 ? null : gesture[index]);
  }
  
  /** Get the name of the i'th gesture defined for this actor. */
  
  public String getGestureName(int i)
  {
    return gestureName[i];
  }
  
  /** Set the name of the i'th gesture defined for this actor. */
  
  public void setGestureName(int i, String name)
  {
    gestureName[i] = name;
  }
  
  /** Get the ID of the i'th gesture defined for this actor. */
  
  public int getGestureID(int i)
  {
    return gestureID[i];
  }
  
  /** Return the index of the gesture with a particular ID, or -1 if there is no gesture with
      that ID. */
  
  public int getGestureIndex(int id)
  {
    int which;
    for (which = 0; which < gestureID.length && gestureID[which] != id; which++);
    if (which == gestureID.length)
      return -1;
    return which;
  }

  /** Create a new object which is an exact duplicate of this one. */
  
  public Object3D duplicate()
  {
    Actor a = new Actor(theObject.duplicate());
    a.gesture = new Gesture [gesture.length];
    a.gestureName = new String [gesture.length];
    a.gestureID = new int [gesture.length];
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      {
        a.gesture[i] = (Gesture) gesture[i].duplicate(a.theObject);
        a.gestureName[i] = gestureName[i];
        a.gestureID[i] = gestureID[i];
      }
    a.nextPoseID = nextPoseID;
    a.currentPose = (ActorKeyframe) currentPose.duplicate(a);
    return a;
  }
  
  /** Copy all the properties of another object, to make this one identical to it.  If the
      two objects are of different classes, this will throw a ClassCastException. */
  
  public void copyObject(Object3D obj)
  {
    Actor a = (Actor) obj;
    theObject = a.theObject.duplicate();
    gesture = new Gesture [a.gesture.length];
    gestureName = new String [a.gesture.length];
    gestureID = new int [a.gesture.length];
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      {
        gesture[i] = (Gesture) a.gesture[i].duplicate(theObject);
        gestureName[i] = a.gestureName[i];
        gestureID[i] = a.gestureID[i];
      }
    nextPoseID = a.nextPoseID;
    currentPose = (ActorKeyframe) a.currentPose.duplicate(this);
  }

  /** The size of an Actor cannot be set directly, since that is determined by its Poses. */

  public void setSize(double xsize, double ysize, double zsize)
  {
  }
  
  /** If the object can be edited by the user, isEditable() should be overridden to return true.
     edit() should then create a window and allow the user to edit the object. */
  
  public boolean isEditable()
  {
    return true;
  }
  
  public void edit(EditingWindow parent, ObjectInfo info, Runnable cb)
  {
    new ActorEditorWindow(parent, info, this, null, cb);
  }
  
  /** All of the following methods call through to the corresponding methods on the object. */
  
  public boolean canSetTexture()
  {
    return theObject.canSetTexture();
  }
     
  public boolean canSetMaterial()
  {
    return theObject.canSetMaterial();
  }
     
  public void setTexture(Texture tex, TextureMapping map)
  {
    TextureParameter oldParam[] = getParameters();
    theObject.setTexture(tex, map);
    TextureParameter newParam[] = map.getParameters();    
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      gesture[i].textureChanged(oldParam, newParam);
  }
  
  public void setMaterial(Material mat, MaterialMapping map)
  {
    theObject.setMaterial(mat, map);
  }
  
  /** Set the list of objects defining the values of texture parameters. */
  
  public void setParameterValues(ParameterValue val[])
  {
    // Set them on the current pose.
    
    theObject.setParameterValues(val);
    
    // Set them on every gesture.
    
    TextureParameter params[] = getParameters();
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      for (int j = 0; j < params.length; j++)
        gesture[i].setTextureParameter(params[j], val[j].duplicate());
  }
  
  /** Set the values of a texture parameter in every gesture. */
  
  public void setParameterValue(TextureParameter param, ParameterValue value)
  {
    // Set it on the current pose.
    
    theObject.setParameterValue(param, value);
    
    // Set it on every gesture.
    
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      gesture[i].setTextureParameter(param, value.duplicate());
  }
  
  /** Given an object (either this Actor's object or a duplicate of it), reshape the object based
      on this Actor's getures.  This function examines the object's skeleton, finds the combination
      of gestures that most nearly reproduce that skeleton shape, and then adjusts all of the vertex
      positions based on the gestures. */
  
  public void shapeMeshFromGestures(Object3D obj)
  {
    Skeleton skeleton = obj.getSkeleton();
    Skeleton defaultSkeleton = gesture[0].getSkeleton();
    Joint currentJoint[] = skeleton.getJoints();
    Joint defaultJoint[] = defaultSkeleton.getJoints();
    int numDof = currentJoint.length*4;
    double coeff[][] = new double[numDof][gesture.length-1];
    double goal[] = new double[numDof];
    
    // Find the right hand side vector.
    
    double d = Math.PI/180.0;
    for (int i = 0; i < defaultJoint.length; i++)
    {
      goal[i*4] = d*(currentJoint[i].angle1.pos - defaultJoint[i].angle1.pos);
      goal[i*4+1] = d*(currentJoint[i].angle2.pos - defaultJoint[i].angle2.pos);
      goal[i*4+2] = d*(currentJoint[i].twist.pos - defaultJoint[i].twist.pos);
      goal[i*4+3] = currentJoint[i].length.pos - defaultJoint[i].length.pos;
    }
    
    // Find the matrix of coefficients.
    
    for (int j = 1; j < gesture.length; j++)
    {
      Joint gestureJoint[] = gesture[j].getSkeleton().getJoints();
      for (int i = 0; i < defaultJoint.length; i++)
      {
        coeff[i*4][j-1] = d*(gestureJoint[i].angle1.pos - defaultJoint[i].angle1.pos);
        coeff[i*4+1][j-1] = d*(gestureJoint[i].angle2.pos - defaultJoint[i].angle2.pos);
        coeff[i*4+2][j-1] = d*(gestureJoint[i].twist.pos - defaultJoint[i].twist.pos);
        coeff[i*4+3][j-1] = gestureJoint[i].length.pos - defaultJoint[i].length.pos;
      }
    }
    
    // Solve the equations.  We only want to use gestures with positive weights, since many
    // gestures are not designed to look right when applied with negative weights.  Eventually,
    // I should rewrite this to use a proper nonnegative least squares algorithm.  For the
    // moment, it uses a simpler approximate method: solve the equations using SVD, then check
    // the weights.  If any are negative, remove those gestures and repeat until all weights
    // are nonnegative.
    
    boolean converged = false;
    boolean negative[] = new boolean [gesture.length-1];
    double weight[] = new double [gesture.length-1];
    while (!converged)
    {
      // Build the matrix to solve.
      
      int numGesture = 0;
      for (int i = 0; i < negative.length; i++)
        if (!negative[i])
          numGesture++;
      if (numGesture == 0)
      {
        MeshGesture average = (MeshGesture) obj.getPoseKeyframe();
        ((MeshGesture) gesture[0]).blendSurface(average, new MeshGesture [0], new double [0]);
        obj.applyPoseKeyframe(average);
        return;
      }
      double rhs[] = new double [Math.max(numDof, numGesture)];
      for (int i = 0; i < numDof; i++)
        rhs[i] = goal[i];
      double matrix[][] = new double [numDof][numGesture];
      for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < negative.length; i++)
        if (!negative[i])
        {
          for (int k = 0; k < numDof; k++)
            matrix[k][j] = coeff[k][i];
          j++;
        }
      SVD.solve(matrix, rhs, 0.1);
      
      // Check for negative weights.
      
      converged = true;
      for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < negative.length; i++)
      {
        weight[i] = 0.0;
        if (!negative[i])
        {
          if (rhs[j] < -0.001)
          {
            negative[i] = true;
            converged = false;
          }
          else if (rhs[j] > 0.001)
            weight[i] = rhs[j];
          j++;
        }
      }
    }
    
    // Construct the output pose.
    
    Vector gestureList = new Vector();
    Vector weightList = new Vector();
    for (int i = 0; i < weight.length; i++)
      if (weight[i] > 0.0)
      {
        gestureList.addElement(gesture[i+1]);
        weightList.addElement(new Double(weight[i]));
      }
    MeshGesture poseGesture[] = new MeshGesture [gestureList.size()];
    double poseWeight[] = new double [weightList.size()];
    for (int i = 0; i < poseGesture.length; i++)
    {
      poseGesture[i] = (MeshGesture) gestureList.elementAt(i);
      poseWeight[i] = ((Double) weightList.elementAt(i)).doubleValue();
    }
    MeshGesture average = (MeshGesture) obj.getPoseKeyframe();
    ((MeshGesture) gesture[0]).blendSurface(average, poseGesture, poseWeight);
    obj.applyPoseKeyframe(average);
  }
  
  /** Write a representation of this object to a file. */

  public void writeToFile(DataOutputStream out, Scene theScene) throws IOException
  {
    out.writeShort(0);
    out.writeUTF(theObject.getClass().getName());
    theObject.writeToFile(out, theScene);
    out.writeInt(nextPoseID);
    out.writeUTF(gesture[0].getClass().getName());
    out.writeInt(gesture.length);
    for (int i = 0; i < gesture.length; i++)
      {
        out.writeInt(gestureID[i]);
        out.writeUTF(gestureName[i]);
        gesture[i].writeToStream(out);
      }
    currentPose.writeToStream(out);
  }
  
  /** Reconstruct this object from its serialized representation. */

  public Actor(DataInputStream in, Scene theScene) throws IOException, InvalidObjectException
  {
    short version = in.readShort();
    if (version != 0)
      throw new InvalidObjectException("");
    try
      {
        Class cls = ArtOfIllusion.getClass(in.readUTF());
        Constructor con = cls.getConstructor(new Class [] {DataInputStream.class, Scene.class});
        theObject = (Object3D) con.newInstance(new Object [] {in, theScene});
        nextPoseID = in.readInt();
        cls = ArtOfIllusion.getClass(in.readUTF());
        con = cls.getConstructor(new Class [] {DataInputStream.class, Object.class});
        int num = in.readInt();
        gesture = new Gesture [num];
        gestureName = new String [num];
        gestureID = new int [num];
        for (int i = 0; i < num; i++)
          {
            gestureID[i] = in.readInt();
            gestureName[i] = in.readUTF();
            gesture[i] = (Gesture) con.newInstance(new Object [] {in, theObject});
          }
        currentPose = new ActorKeyframe(in, this);
      }
    catch (InvocationTargetException ex)
      {
        ex.getTargetException().printStackTrace();
        throw new IOException();
      }
    catch (Exception ex)
      {
        ex.printStackTrace();
        throw new IOException();
      }
  }

  public Property[] getProperties()
  {
    Property prop[] = new Property[currentPose.getNumGestures()];
    for (int i = 0; i < prop.length; i++)
      prop[i] = new Property(getGestureName(getGestureIndex(currentPose.getGestureID(i))),
          -Double.MAX_VALUE, Double.MAX_VALUE, currentPose.getGestureWeight(i));
    return prop;
  }

  public Object getPropertyValue(int index)
  {
    return new Double(currentPose.getGestureWeight(index));
  }

  public void setPropertyValue(int index, Object value)
  {
    currentPose.weight[index] = ((Double) value).doubleValue();
    applyPoseKeyframe(currentPose);
  }

  /** Return a Keyframe which describes the current pose of this object. */
  
  public Keyframe getPoseKeyframe()
  {
    return currentPose.duplicate(this);
  }
  
  /** Modify this object based on a pose keyframe. */
  
  public void applyPoseKeyframe(Keyframe k)
  {
    currentPose = (ActorKeyframe) k.duplicate(this);
    theObject.applyPoseKeyframe(currentPose.createObjectKeyframe(this));
  }
  
  /** This will be called whenever a new pose track is created for this object.  It allows
      the object to configure the track by setting its graphable values, subtracks, etc. */
  
  public void configurePoseTrack(PoseTrack track)
  {
    track.setGraphableValues(new String [0], new double [0], new double [0][2]);
  }
  
  /** Find the array index for a given pose ID. */
  
  int findPoseIndex(int id)
  {
    int min = 0, max = gestureID.length-1, current = (min+max)>>1;
    
    while (true)
      {
        if (gestureID[current] == id)
          return current;
        if (gestureID[current] > id)
          max = current-1;
        else
          min = current+1;
        if (min >= max)
          {
            if (min < gestureID.length && gestureID[min] == id)
              return min;
            return -1;
          }
        current = (min+max)>>1;
      }
  }
  
  /** Allow the user to edit a keyframe returned by getPoseKeyframe(). */
  
  public void editKeyframe(EditingWindow parent, Keyframe k, ObjectInfo info)
  {
    new ActorEditorWindow(parent, info, this, (ActorKeyframe) k, null);
  }
  
  /** This is a utility routine.  It takes an Object3D as its argument.  If the object is an
      Actor, it is simply returned.  If the argument is an ObjectWrapper which contains an Actor,
      the inner Actor is returned.  Otherwise, it returns null. */
  
  public static Actor getActor(Object3D obj)
  {
    while (obj instanceof ObjectWrapper)
    {
      if (obj instanceof Actor)
        return (Actor) obj;
      obj = ((ObjectWrapper) obj).getWrappedObject();
    }
    return null;
  }
  
  /** Inner class representing a pose for an Actor.  It consists of a list of gestures, and a
      weight for each one. */
  
  public static class ActorKeyframe implements Keyframe
  {
    int id[];
    double weight[];
    
    public ActorKeyframe()
    {
      id = new int [0];
      weight = new double [0];
    }
    
    public ActorKeyframe(int id[], double weight[])
    {
      this.id = id;
      this.weight = weight;
    }
    
    /** Get the number of gestures in this keyframe. */
    
    public int getNumGestures()
    {
      return id.length;
    }
    
    /** Get the ID of a gesture in this keyframe. */
    
    public int getGestureID(int index)
    {
      return id[index];
    }
    
    /** Get the weight for a gesture in this keyframe. */
    
    public double getGestureWeight(int index)
    {
      return weight[index];
    }
    
    /** Add a gesture to an ActorKeyframe. */
    
    public void addGesture(int addID, double addWeight)
    {
      int newid[] = new int [id.length+1];
      double newweight[] = new double [weight.length+1];
      System.arraycopy(id, 0, newid, 0, id.length);
      System.arraycopy(weight, 0, newweight, 0, weight.length);
      newid[id.length] = addID;
      newweight[weight.length] = addWeight;
      id = newid;
      weight = newweight;
    }
    
    /** Delete a gesture from an ActorKeyframe. */
    
    public void deleteGesture(int which)
    {
      int newid[] = new int [id.length-1];
      double newweight[] = new double [weight.length-1];
      for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < id.length; i++)
        {
          if (i == which)
            continue;
          newid[j] = id[i];
          newweight[j++] = weight[i];
        }
      id = newid;
      weight = newweight;
    }
    
    /** Create a duplicate of this keyframe. */
  
    public Keyframe duplicate(Object owner)
    {
      return duplicate();
    }

    public Keyframe duplicate()
    {
      ActorKeyframe k = new ActorKeyframe();
      k.id = new int [id.length];
      k.weight = new double [weight.length];
      System.arraycopy(id, 0, k.id, 0, id.length);
      System.arraycopy(weight, 0, k.weight, 0, weight.length);
      return k;
    }
  
    /** Make this keyframe identical to another one. */
    
    public void copy(ActorKeyframe key)
    {
      id = new int [key.id.length];
      weight = new double [key.weight.length];
      System.arraycopy(key.id, 0, id, 0, id.length);
      System.arraycopy(key.weight, 0, weight, 0, weight.length);
    }
  
    /** Get the list of graphable values for this keyframe. */
  
    public double [] getGraphValues()
    {
      return new double [0];
    }
  
    /** Set the list of graphable values for this keyframe. */
  
    public void setGraphValues(double values[])
    {
    }

    /** Add the weights from a keyframe into a hashtable. */
    
    private void addWeightsToTable(ActorKeyframe k, Hashtable table, double scale)
    {
      for (int i = 0; i < k.id.length; i++)
        {
          Object key = new Integer(k.id[i]);
          Double weight = (Double) table.get(key);
          if (weight == null)
            weight = new Double(k.weight[i]*scale);
          else
            weight = new Double(k.weight[i]*scale+weight.doubleValue());
          table.put(key, weight);
        }
    }
    
    /** Create a keyframe from the information in a hashtable. */
    
    private ActorKeyframe getKeyframeFromTable(Hashtable table)
    {
      ActorKeyframe k = new ActorKeyframe();
      k.id = new int [table.size()];
      k.weight = new double [k.id.length];
      Enumeration keys = table.keys();
      int j = 0;
      for (int i = 0; i < k.id.length; i++)
        {
          Integer key = (Integer) keys.nextElement();
          Double weight = (Double) table.get(key);
          k.id[j] = key.intValue();
          k.weight[j] = weight.doubleValue();
          if (k.weight[j] != 0.0)
            j++;
        }
      if (j < k.id.length)
        {
          int id[] = new int [j];
          double weight[] = new double [j];
          System.arraycopy(k.id, 0, id, 0, j);
          System.arraycopy(k.weight, 0, weight, 0, j);
          k.id = id;
          k.weight = weight;
        }
      return k;
    }

    /** These methods return a new Keyframe which is a weighted average of this one and one,
       two, or three others. */
  
    public Keyframe blend(Keyframe o2, double weight1, double weight2)
    {
      Hashtable table = new Hashtable();
      
      addWeightsToTable(this, table, weight1);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o2, table, weight2);
      return getKeyframeFromTable(table);
    }

    public Keyframe blend(Keyframe o2, Keyframe o3, double weight1, double weight2, double weight3)
    {
      Hashtable table = new Hashtable();
      
      addWeightsToTable(this, table, weight1);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o2, table, weight2);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o3, table, weight3);
      return getKeyframeFromTable(table);
    }

    public Keyframe blend(Keyframe o2, Keyframe o3, Keyframe o4, double weight1, double weight2, double weight3, double weight4)
    {
      Hashtable table = new Hashtable();
      
      addWeightsToTable(this, table, weight1);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o2, table, weight2);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o3, table, weight3);
      addWeightsToTable((ActorKeyframe) o4, table, weight4);
      return getKeyframeFromTable(table);
    }

    /** Determine whether this keyframe is identical to another one. */
  
    public boolean equals(Keyframe k)
    {
      if (!(k instanceof ActorKeyframe))
        return false;
      ActorKeyframe key = (ActorKeyframe) k;
      if (id.length != key.id.length)
        return false;
      for (int i = 0; i < id.length; i++)
        if (id[i] != key.id[i] || weight[i] != key.weight[i])
          return false;
      return true;
    }
    
    /** Create a keyframe for the Actor's "inner" object, based on this keyframes list of poses. */
    
    public Keyframe createObjectKeyframe(Actor actor)
    {
      Vector poseVec = new Vector(), weightVec = new Vector();
      
      for (int i = 0; i < id.length; i++)
      {
        int which = actor.findPoseIndex(id[i]);
        if (which > -1)
        {
          poseVec.addElement(actor.gesture[which]);
          weightVec.addElement(new Double(weight[i]));
        }
      }
      Gesture blendPose[] = new Gesture [poseVec.size()];
      double blendWeight[] = new double [poseVec.size()];
      for (int i = 0; i < blendPose.length; i++)
      {
        blendPose[i] = (Gesture) poseVec.elementAt(i);
        blendWeight[i] = ((Double) weightVec.elementAt(i)).doubleValue();
      }
      return actor.gesture[0].blend(blendPose, blendWeight);
    }
  
    /** Write out a representation of this keyframe to a stream. */
  
    public void writeToStream(DataOutputStream out) throws IOException
    {
      out.writeInt(id.length);
      for (int i = 0; i < id.length; i++)
        {
          out.writeInt(id[i]);
          out.writeDouble(weight[i]);
        }
    }

    /** Reconstructs the keyframe from its serialized representation. */

    public ActorKeyframe(DataInputStream in, Object parent) throws IOException
    {
      int num = in.readInt();
      
      id = new int [num];
      weight = new double [num];
      for (int i = 0; i < num; i++)
        {
          id[i] = in.readInt();
          weight[i] = in.readDouble();
        }
    }
  }
}
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