C - Data Structure Binary Trees


A binary tree consists of a set of interconnected elements called nodes.

The starting node is the base of the tree and is called the root node.

Each node typically contains an item of data, plus pointers to two subsidiary nodes, a left node and a right node.

If either subsidiary node does not exist, the corresponding pointer is NULL.

A node may include a counter that records the number of duplicates of the data item that it contains.

Here's an example of a struct that defines nodes that store integers of type long:

typedef struct Node Node;
struct Node
  long item;                 // The data item
  int count;                 // Number of copies of item
  Node *pLeft;               // Pointer to left node
  Node *pRight;              // Pointer to right node


#define __STDC_WANT_LIB_EXT1__ 1
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <ctype.h>

typedef struct Node Node;

// Defines a node in a binary tree sotring integers
struct Node//  w w  w.  j a v a 2  s.c om
  long item;                                   // The data item
  int count;                                   // Number of copies of item
  Node *pLeft;                                 // Pointer to left node
  Node *pRight;                                // Pointer to right node

// Function prototypes
Node *create_node(long value);                 // Create a tree node
Node *add_node(long value, Node *pNode);       // Insert a new node
void list_nodes(Node *pNode);                  // List all nodes
void free_nodes(Node *pNode);                  // Release memory

int main(void){
  long newvalue = 0;
  Node *pRoot = NULL;
  char answer = 'n';
    printf_s("Enter the node value: ");
    scanf_s(" %ld", &newvalue);
    if (!pRoot)
      pRoot = create_node(newvalue);
      add_node(newvalue, pRoot);
    printf_s("Do you want to enter another (y or n)? ");
    scanf_s(" %c", &answer, sizeof(answer));
  } while (tolower(answer) == 'y');

  printf_s("The values in ascending sequence are:\n");
  list_nodes(pRoot);                           // Output the contents of the tree
  free_nodes(pRoot);                           // Release the heap memory
  return 0;

// Create a binary tree node
Node *create_node(long value)
  Node *pNode = (Node*)malloc(sizeof(Node));
  pNode->item = value;                         // Set the value
  pNode->count = 1;                            // Set the count
  pNode->pLeft = pNode->pRight = NULL;         // No left or right nodes
  return pNode;

// Add a new node to the tree
Node *add_node(long value, Node *pNode)
  if (!pNode)                                   // If there's no node
    return create_node(value);                 // create one and return it

  if (value == pNode->item)
  {                                            // Value equals current node
    ++pNode->count;                            // so increment count 
    return pNode;                              // and return the same node

  if (value < pNode->item)
  {                                            // Less than current node
    if (!pNode->pLeft)                          // and no left node
      pNode->pLeft = create_node(value);       //  so create a left node
      return pNode->pLeft;                     // and return it.
    else                                       // There is a left node
      return add_node(value, pNode->pLeft);    // so add value via left node
  {                                            // Greater than current node
    if (!pNode->pRight)
    {                                          // but no right node
      pNode->pRight = create_node(value);     // so create one
      return pNode->pRight;                   // and return it.
    else                                       // There is a right node
      return add_node(value, pNode->pRight);   // so add to that.

// List the node values in ascending sequence
void list_nodes(Node *pNode)
  if (pNode->pLeft)

  printf_s("%10d x %10ld\n", pNode->count, pNode->item);

  if (pNode->pRight)

// Release memory allocated to nodes
void free_nodes(Node *pNode)
  if (!pNode)                       // If there's no node
    return;                       // we are done and return.

  if (pNode->pLeft)                 // If there's a left sub-tree
    free_nodes(pNode->pLeft);     // free memory for those nodes.

  if (pNode->pRight)                // If there's a right sub-tree
    free_nodes(pNode->pRight);    // free memory for those nodes.

  free(pNode);                      // Free current node memory