Within the control string for the scanf() function, the % character identifies the start of a format specification for an item of data.
f that follows the % indicates that the input should be interpreted as a floating-point value.
The following table lists the basic set of format specifiers you can use for reading data of various types.
|Action|| Required control string|
|To read a value of type short|| %hd|
|To read a value of type int|| %d|
|To read a value of type long|| %ld|
|To read a value of type float|| %f or %e|
|To read a value of type double|| %lf or %le|
in the %ld and %lf format specifiers, l is lowercased.
You must always prefix the name of the variable that's receiving the input value with &.