The third and first invocation are logically equivalent.
The parentheses in the third invocation only improve readability.
The parentheses in the second invocation change the order of operation.
SQL> SQL>-- from ww w . j av a 2 s .com SQL> SQL> DECLARE 2 x BOOLEAN := FALSE; 3 y BOOLEAN := FALSE; 4 5 BEGIN 6 print_boolean ('NOT x AND y', NOT x AND y); 7 print_boolean ('NOT (x AND y)', NOT (x AND y)); 8 print_boolean ('(NOT x) AND y', (NOT x) AND y); 9 END; 10 / NOT x AND y = FALSE NOT (x AND y) = TRUE (NOT x) AND y = FALSE PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> SQL>