Strings are defined as ordered collections of characters.
We can access their characters by position.
In Python, characters in a string are fetched by indexing.
Python offsets start at 0 and end at one less than the length of the string.
Python can fetch items from sequences such as strings using negative offsets.
A negative offset is added to the length of a string to derive a positive offset.
You can think of negative offsets as counting backward from the end.
The following interaction demonstrates:
S = 'test' print( S, S[-2] ) # Indexing from front or end print( S[1:3], S[1:], S[:-1] ) # Slicing: extract a section # from w w w. j a v a 2 s.c om
The first line defines a four-character string and assigns it the name S.
The next line indexes it in two ways:
The leftmost item is at offset 0, but the rightmost is at offset -1.
Positive offsets start from the left end (offset 0 is the first item).
Negatives count back from the right end (offset -1 is the last item).
Either kind of offset can be used to give positions in indexing and slicing operations.
The last line in the preceding example demonstrates slicing.
S[1:3] extracts the items at offsets 1 and 2: it grabs the second and third items, and stops before the fourth item at offset 3.
S[1:] gets all items beyond the first:the upper bound, not specified, defaults to the length of the string.
S[:-1] fetches all but the last item: the lower bound defaults to 0, and -1 refers to the last item, noninclusive.