Python - Data Type Unicode Strings

Introduction

Python's strings have full Unicode support.

In Python 3.X, the normal str string handles Unicode text.

A distinct bytes string type represents raw byte values.

Demo

S = 'sp\xc4m'          # 3.X: normal str strings are Unicode text 
print(S)# from  ww w.  j av a2s  . co m
print( b'a\x01c' )     # bytes strings are byte-based data 
print( u'test\u00c4m' )  # The 2.X Unicode literal works in 3.3+: just str

Result

In Python 2.X, the normal str string handles both 8-bit character strings (including ASCII text) and raw byte values.

A distinct unicode string type represents Unicode text.

3.X bytes literals are supported in 2.6 and later for 3.X compatibility and they are treated the same as normal 2.X str strings:

Demo

print(u'sp\xc4m')    # 2.X: Unicode strings are a distinct type 
print( 'a\x01c' )    # Normal str strings contain byte-based text/data 
print( b'a\x01c' )   # The 3.X bytes literal works in 2.6+: just str
#   ww  w .j a va  2s. c  om

Result

In both 2.X and 3.X, non-Unicode strings are sequences of 8-bit bytes that print with ASCII characters when possible.

Unicode strings are sequences of Unicode code points-identifying numbers for characters.

Demo

print( 'test' )                        # Characters may be 1, 2, or 4 bytes in memory 
print( 'test'.encode('utf8') )         # Encoded to 4 bytes in UTF-8 in files 
print( 'test'.encode('utf16') )        # But encoded to 10 bytes in UTF-16
#  w  ww.  j  a v  a  2  s . c  o  m

Result

Both 3.X and 2.X also support the bytearray string type.

bytearray string type is essentially a bytes string (a str in 2.X) that supports most of the list object's in-place mutable change operations.

Both 3.X and 2.X support coding non-ASCII characters with \x hexadecimal and short \u and long \U Unicode escapes.

Python also handles file-wide encodings declared in program source files.

Here's our non-ASCII character coded three ways in 3.X (add a leading "u" and say "print" to see the same in 2.X):

Demo

print( 'test\xc4\u00c4\U000000c4m' )
print( '\u00A3', '\u00A3'.encode('latin1'), b'\xA3'.decode('latin1') )

Result

Python 2.X allows its normal and Unicode strings to be mixed in expressions as long as the normal string is all ASCII.

Python 3.X has a tighter model that never allows its normal and byte strings to mix without explicit conversion:

u'x' + b'y'            # Works in 2.X (where b is optional and ignored) 
u'x' + 'y'             # Works in 2.X: u'xy' 

u'x' + b'y'            # Fails in 3.3 (where u is optional and ignored) 
u'x' + 'y'             # Works in 3.3: 'xy' 

'x' + b'y'.decode()    # Works in 3.X if decode bytes to str: 'xy' 
'x'.encode() + b'y'    # Works in 3.X if encode str to bytes: b'xy' 

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