Ruby hash is a dictionary or associative array.
Each entry is indexed by a unique key that is associated with a value.
You can create a hash by creating a new instance of the Hash class:
h1 = Hash.new h2 = Hash.new("Some value")
Both the previous examples create an empty Hash object.
A Hash object always has a default value.
The default value is a value that is returned when no specific value is found at a given index.
In the above examples, h2 is initialized with the default value "Some value"; h1 is not initialized with a value, so its default value will be nil.
For a Hash object, you can add items to it using an arraylike syntax.
With an array, the index (or key) must be an integer; with a hash, it can be any unique data item:
h2['Product1'] = 'A' h2['Product2'] = 'B' h2['Product3'] = 'C' h2['Product4'] = 'D'
The key may be a number or a string.
In principle, a key can be any type of object.