C - Data Type Mathematical Functions


The math.h header file includes declarations of mathematical functions.

All the functions return a value of type double.

Functions for Numerical Calculations

Returns the largest integer that isn't greater than x as type double
Returns the smallest integer that isn't less than x as type double
Returns the absolute value of x
Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of x
Returns the logarithm to base 10 of x
Returns the value of ex
pow(x, y)
Returns the square root of x
Returns the value xy

There are versions of these for types float and long double that have f or l, respectively, appended to the function name.

ceilf() applies to float values and sqrtl() applies to long double values, for example.

Here are some examples demonstrating use of the functions:

double x = 2.25;
double less = 0.0;
double more = 0.0;
double root = 0.0;
less = floor(x);                            // Result is 2.0
more = ceil(x);                             // Result is 3.0
root = sqrt(x);                             // Result is 1.5

The following table lists trigonometric functions.

Those for types, float and type long double have f or l, respectively, appended to the name.

Arguments and values returned are of type float, type double, or type long double and angles are expressed in radians.

sin(x) Sine of x expressed in radians
cos(x) Cosine of x
tan(x) Tangent of x

Here are some examples:

double angle = 45.0;                        // Angle in degrees
double pi = 3.14159265;
double sine = 0.0;
double cosine = 0.0;
sine = sin(pi*angle/180.0);                 // Angle converted to radians
cosine = sin(pi*angle/180.0);               // Angle converted to radians

Dividing an angle measured in degrees by 180 and multiplying by the value of p will produce the angle in radians, as required by these functions.

The inverse trigonometric functions are available: asin(), acos(), and atan()

The hyperbolic functions are sinh(), cosh(), and tanh().

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