Specify a negative number as parameter three for the length : substr « String « PHP

Specify a negative number as parameter three for the length

    $string = "Goodbye, Perl!";
    $a = substr($string, 5, 5);

    $b = substr($string, 5, -1);

    $c = substr($string, 0, -7);

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1.A negative substr() length parameter
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5.Extracting a substring with substr()
6.Extracting the end of a string with substr()
7.If you pass substr() a negative number, it counts from the end of the string.
8.Setting up and working with both strings and substrings
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16.string substr ( string str, int start_pos [, int length] ) reads part of a string and takes a minimum of two parameters
17.substr() function returns the part of the string between the start and start+length parameters.
21.Using negative lengths allows you to say "copy everything but the last three characters,"
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