ascii « bit « Java Data Type Q&A

1. downgrade non-ascii symbols to closest 7-bit ASCII equivalent (preferrably Java)

is there any simple/lightweight solution to change at least some of non-ASCII symbols to respective ASCII analogs? For example this string

should be changed to
A bit of background: Zip-tools do ...

2. in Java, which encoding scheme is 8-bit US ASCII?

I want to write a string to a file which expects an 8-bit US ASCII encoding. Which encoding scheme should I use for the method String.getBytes(encodingScheme)? Thanks.

3. Convert from Ascii to bits...