Format Operator Auxiliary Directives : Format « String « Python Tutorial

Symbol          Functionality
*              Argument specifies width or precision
-               Use left justification
+               Use a plus sign ( + ) for positive numbers
<sp>            Use space-padding for positive numbers
#               Add the octal leading zero ('0') or hexadecimal leading '0x' or '0X', depending on whether 'x' or 'X' were used.
0               Use zero-padding (instead of spaces) when formatting numbers
%               '%%' leaves you with a single literal '%'
(var)           Mapping variable (dictionary arguments)
m.n              m is the minimum total width and n is the number of digits to display after the decimal point (if applicable)

5.10.1.String formatting is done with the string formatting operator, the percent (%) sign.
5.10.2.Formatted String
5.10.3.String format
5.10.4.A basic conversion specifier
5.10.5.use the string format operator ( % ), or put all of the substrings in a list, and using one join() call to put them all together
5.10.6.The syntax for using the format operator is as follows: format_string % (arguments_to_convert)
5.10.7.Format Operator Auxiliary Directives
5.10.8.String Formatting Conversion Types
5.10.9.print paired with the string format operator ( % )
5.10.10.Width and Precision
5.10.11.Signs, Alignment, and Zero-Padding
5.10.12.A minus sign (-) left-aligns the value:
5.10.13.A blank (" ") means that a blank should be put in front of positive numbers
5.10.14.a plus (+) means that a sign should precede both positive and negative numbers
5.10.15.String formatting.
5.10.16.String-formatting codes
5.10.18.The %e, %f, and %g formats display floating-point numbers in different ways, as the following interaction demonstrates:
5.10.19.Dictionary-Based String Formatting